The term Green Revolution was first used on March 8, 1968 by William S., administrator of the American Agency for International Development (USAID). This was done in a speech by Gaud, who noted the proliferation of new techniques.
The Green Revolution in India started in the year 1966 and this revolution transformed the industrial system due to the use of modern methods and technology of Indian agriculture such as high yielding varieties (HYV) seeds, tractors, irrigation facilities, pesticides and fertilizers. had come. This revolution was first started by Nobel Laureate Professor Norman Borlaug, but in India, MS. Swaminathan is considered the father of this.
Green revolution is the result of that development method implemented in Indian agriculture, Which emerged in the 1960’s as traditional agriculture was replaced by modern technology. This revolution in India led to rapid development and in a short time it produced so many amazing results that the planners, agricultural experts and politicians of the country called this unexpected progress as ‘Green Revolution‘.
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The term Green Revolution in India was also given because, as a result, Indian agriculture had risen above the subsistence level to a higher level. There was an increase in food production in India, especially in rural states like Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The major milestones in this venture were the development of high-yielding varieties of wheat, and rust-resistant strains of wheat.
States affected by Green Revolution in India:
Impact in agricultural production:
Increase in production and productivity: The biggest advantage of the new development method implemented in Indian agriculture due to the Green Revolution in India was that the area of crops was increasing in the country, due to which agricultural production and food production increased.
In particular, there was a maximum increase in production of wheat, millet, paddy, maize and sorghum and as a result, India became self-sufficient in food grains. The total production of food grains in the country in 1951-1952 was 5.09 million tonnes, which increased respectively to 23.38 million tonnes in 2008-2009. Similarly there has been a substantial improvement in productivity per hectare.
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Changes in the traditional form of agriculture: As a result of the Green Revolution in India, the traditional form of farming has changed and farming has started to be done commercially. Whereas earlier agriculture was done only to feed. There has been an increase in the production of sugarcane, cotton, jute and oilseeds in the country.
Cotton production was 5.6 million bales in 1960–1961, which increased to 27 million bales in 2008–2009. Similarly, the production of oilseeds was 7 million tons in 1960–1961, which increased to 28.2 million tons in 2008–2009. Similarly, production of commercial crops like jute, sugarcane, potato and groundnut has also increased.
At present, cultivation of horticultural crops, fruits, vegetables and flowers is also being encouraged in the country.
Strengthening industry relations: New technology and modernization of agriculture have made the relationship between agriculture and industry stronger than ever. Traditionally, however, the advance relationship between agriculture and industry was already strong, because many inputs are made available to industries by the agricultural sector.
But the regressive relationship between these two was very weak, because the manufactured goods of the industry were rarely used in agriculture. But as a result of modernization of agriculture, there has been a huge increase in the demand for industrial manufactured inputs in agriculture, such as agricultural machinery and chemical fertilizers, etc.
which has also strengthened the retrograde relationship of agriculture. In other words, the relationship between agriculture and industrial sector has become stronger.
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Improvement in use of chemical fertilizers: Due to the new agricultural policy, the amount of consumption of chemical fertilizers has increased rapidly. The use of chemical fertilizers was two kilograms per hectare in 1960–1961, which has increased to 128.6 kg per hectare in 2008–2009. Similarly, the total consumption of chemical fertilizers in the country was 2.92 lakh tonnes in 1960–1961, which increased to 249.09 lakh tonnes in 2008–2009.
Establishment of Agricultural Service Centers: In order to develop the capacity of business courage among farmers, a scheme has been implemented to set up Agricultural Service Centers in the country. In this scheme, people are first given technical training, then they are asked to set up service centers.
For this, they are provided assistance from nationalized banks. Till date, a total of 1,314 agricultural service centers have been established in the country.
Problems of Green Revolution in India:
Impact on limited crops: The impact of Green Revolution was limited to certain crops, such as wheat, jowar, millet etc. There has been no impact on other crops. Even rice has been affected very little by this. Business crops are also unaffected by this.
Promotion of capitalist agriculture: Seeds of more fertile variety are a capital-intensive program, in which large amounts have to be invested on inputs such as fertilizers, irrigation, agricultural implements etc. Investing heavily is beyond the capacity of small and medium-sized farmers.
In this way, those farmers who have private pumping sets, tractors, tube wells and other agricultural machines are benefiting from the Green Revolution. This facility is available only to big farmers of the country. Ordinary farmers are deprived of these facilities.
The need for institutional reforms is not emphasized: The need for institutional reforms has been completely ignored in the new development method. Under institutional changes, the most important component is the system of land holding. It is only with this technology that maximum output can be achieved by technological changes.
Land reform programs have not been successful in the country and even today, certainty of landholding has not been provided to millions of farmers.
The problem of labor displacement: Due to agricultural mechanization used under the Green Revolution, labor displacement has got a boost. It is also a reason for the rural population to migrate to cities in search of employment.
Increasing income inequality: Technological changes in agriculture have the opposite effect on income distribution in rural areas. Dr. V.K. R. According to V. Rao, “It is now well known that inequality in rural income has increased with the so-called Green Revolution, which has helped to increase the production of food grains in the country, many small farmers have to give up their tenancy rights and Social and economic tensions have increased in rural areas. ”
Lack of necessary facilities: Due to lack of necessary facilities such as irrigation system, agricultural credit, economic holdings and cheap inputs etc. for the success of Green Revolution, the desired success is not being achieved in the field of agricultural development.
Regional imbalance development: The impact of Green Revolution is limited to the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Due to its effect not spreading on the whole country, the country could not develop in a balanced manner. In this way, the Green Revolution has been a limited success.
Green revolution in India- Detailed Knowledge
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