The strongest judicial power at the state level rests with the High Court in the country. There are a total of 25 high courts in India, out of which seven have multiple courts. They have jurisdiction over the state, union territory or group of states.
The oldest High Court was established in the year 1862 in Calcutta. Civil and criminal lower courts and tribunals function under the High Court. But all the High Courts are under the Supreme Court of India.
List of High Courts of India:
|Court (Year of Establishment)||Established act||Jurisdiction|
|Hyderabad High Court (05 July 1957)||High Court Act, 1953||Andhra Pradesh and Telangana|
|Himachal Pradesh High Court (1971)||Himachal Pradesh Act, 1970||Himachal Pradesh|
|Sikkim High Court (16 May 1975)||38th Amendment to the Indian Constitution||Sikkim|
|Rajasthan High Court (21 June 1949)||Rajasthan High Court Ordinance, 1949||Rajasthan|
|Meghalaya High Court (23 March 2013)||North Eastern Region Reorganization Act, 2012||Meghalaya|
|Mumbai High Court (14 August 1862)||High Court Act, 1861||Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu.|
|High Court of Madhya Pradesh (2 January 1936)||Government of India Act, 1935||Madhya Pradesh|
|Madras High Court (5 August 1862)||High Court Act, 1861||Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry|
|Manipur High Court (25 March 2013)||North Eastern Region Reorganization Act, 2012||Manipur|
|Patna High Court (2 September 1916)||Government of India Act, 1915||Bihar|
|Punjab and Haryana High Court (15 August 1947)||High Court (Punjab) Order, 1947||Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh|
|Delhi High Court (31 October 1966)||Delhi High Court Act, 1966||National Capital Territory (Delhi)|
|Tripura High Court (26 March 2013)||North Eastern Region Reorganization Act, 2012||Tripura|
|Jharkhand High Court (15 November 2000)||Bihar Reorganization Act, 2000||Jharkhand|
|High Court of Jammu and Kashmir (28 August 1928)||Letter of Rights-Donation-Letter issued by the Maharaja of Kashmir.||Jammu and Kashmir|
|Chhattisgarh High Court (1 November 2000)||Madhya Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2000||Chattisgarh|
|Guwahati High Court (1 March 1948)||Government of India Act, 1965||Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram|
|Gujarat High Court (1 May 1960)||Bombay Reorganization Act, 1960||Gujarat|
|Kerala High Court (1956)||State Reorganization Act, 1956||Kerala, Lakshadweep|
|Calcutta High Court (2 July 1862)||High Court Act, 1861||West Bengal, Andaman and Nicobar|
|Karnataka High Court (1884)||Mysore High Court Act, 1884||Karnataka|
|Uttarakhand High Court (9 November 2000)||Uttar Pradesh Reorganization Act, 2000||Uttarakhand|
|Orissa High Court (3 April 1948)||Odisha High Court Order, 1948||Odisha|
|Allahabad High Court (11 June 1866)||High Court Act, 1861||Uttar Pradesh|
|Andhra Pradesh High Court (1 January 2019)||Andhra Pradesh|
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Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court:
All judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President of India in consultation with the Supreme Court. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court essentially consults the group of four senior-most judges before advising the President in this context and advises the President on the basis of the advice received from this group.
According to Article 124, while appointing the Chief Justice, the President will consult the judges of the Supreme Court as he wishes. At the time of appointment of other judges, he will inevitably have to accept the advice of the Chief Justice.
Article 214 of the Constitution provides for a High Court for each state. Parliament has the right under Article 231 to establish a High Court for two or more states. The High Court is declared in accordance with Article 215 of the Record Court.
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Qualifications of Supreme Court Judge:
The person is a citizen of India.
Must have served as a Judge of the High Court for at least five years or as a Judge in two or more courts for at least five consecutive years.
Have been an advocate in a High Court or Courts for ten consecutive years.
That person should be an eminent jurist in the opinion of the President.
To become a judge of the Supreme Court, it is mandatory for a judge to have five years of experience in the High Court of any state and should not have completed the age of 62 years.
Tenure of Supreme Court Judges:
The retirement age of judges of the Supreme Court of India is 65 years. Judges can only be removed by the President on the basis of a resolution passed by a two-thirds majority by both houses of parliament on the grounds of proven (impeachment) misconduct or incapacity.
Total number of high courts in India- Detailed Knowledge
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